By a recent count, researchers have identified more than 100 different cannabinoids in cannabis. Of these, CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) are the best known and most well studied of the cannabinoids.
The main cannabinoids are:
- CBD (Cannabidiol)
- THC (Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol)
- CBN (Cannabinol)
- CBG (Cannabigerol)
- CBC (Cannabichromene)
- CBGV (Cannabigerivarin)
- THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin)
- CBDV (Cannabidivarin)
- CBCV (Cannabichromevarin)
The following is an overview of the main cannabinoids and some of the conditions they are currently being researched for, or have shown promise in positively impacting.
CBD is short for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the industrial hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana, by itself, it does not cause a “high.”
CBD is currently being researched in clinical trials to learn of its use in cancer treatment protocols for numerous types of cancer including glioblastoma, lung, breast, skin, endocrine, bladder and more. Additionally, research shows that CBD benefits include acting as an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, antiemetic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent, and is therefore a potential medicine for the treatment of neuroinflammation, epilepsy, oxidative injury, vomiting and nausea, anxiety and schizophrenia. Continuing research and FDA approvals are in the works for numerous new drugs.
THC, known as Delta 9-THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol may be a promising therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain that is difficult to treat. THC reacts with the cannabinoid receptors in the brain. The main active component of cannabis Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has also been increasingly used in the treatment of nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and depression.
CBN was actually the first cannabinoid to be identified by scientists, before CBD and TCH. Scientific research suggests CBN may make a difference as:
- A Sedative
- A Pain Reliever
- An Antibiotic
- An Anti-inflammatory
- An Appetite Stimulant
- An Anti-Convulsant
- A Cancer Fighter
- A Way to Stimulate Bone Healing and Growth
- A Glaucoma Therapy
Scientists have studied CBN, CBD and THC all for several decades, both for their chemical composition and for their effects on humans.
A non-psychoactive cannabinoid, Cannabigerol’s antibacterial effects can alter the overall effects of cannabis. CBG, short for Cannabigerol, is known to kill or slow bacterial growth, reduce inflammation – particularly in its acidic CBGA form, inhibit cell growth in cancer tumor and cancer cells, and promote bone growth. It acts as a low-affinity antagonist at the CB1 receptor. Currently, CBG pharmacological activity at the CB2 receptor is unknown.
Cannabigerol, or CBG, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid typically most abundant in low-THC, high-CBD cannabis strains, including hemp. Like THC, CBG reacts with the cannabinoid receptors in the brain; however, CBG acts as a buffer to the psychoactivity of THC, by working to alleviate the paranoia sometimes caused by higher levels of THC.
CBG works to fight inflammation, pain and nausea, and works to slow the proliferation of cancer cells. Research has shown it also significantly reduces intraocular eye pressure caused by glaucoma. Additionally, strains high in CBG will be beneficial treating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), Crohn’s disease and cancer.
Cannabigerivarin (CBGV) is a component of the cannabis genome. It is classified as a cannabinoid acid, but unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) it provides no psychoactive effects.
Researchers are currently studying other possible health benefits of medicinal marijuana strains that are high in CBGV. Research points to CBDV having anticonvulsant effects. Because of this, it is currently being looked at a medicinal compound for people with epilepsy.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin, or THCV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found most prevalently in sativa strains of cannabis. It is known to produce a more motivated, alert and energizing feeling of euphoria. For this reason, it is often recommended for daytime or any time when functionality is important.
THCV relieves stress, and research shows it can help to reduce or even prevent anxiety and panic attacks and thereby plays an important role in the treatment of post-traumatic-stress-disorder (PTSD). It is also neuroprotective, so it is ideal for treating conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. Unlike THC, THCV works to suppress the appetite, so it is not recommended for patients suffering from cachexia or anorexia nervosa.
CBDV is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that won’t cause aeuphoric feeling of being “high.” More prevalently found in indica strains and those strains of cannabis that are lower in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
CBDV significantly reduces the frequency and severity of seizures and reduces or even eliminates the nausea associated with several conditions. CBDV also helps to reduce inflammation throughout the body and is also beneficial in the treatment of pain and mood disorders.
Research has shown that CBDV is particularly effective in providing symptom relief are listed below:
- Multiple Sclerosis
Scientists have known about CBCV since 1975 when researchers at the University of Nagasaki in Thailand isolated it from a cannabis plant. However, since its discovery, researches haven’t conducted much research on the compound.
With additional research, if CBCV turns out to have similar medical benefits to CBC, it could help patients without making them feel impaired, similar to CBD. CBC doesn’t have any psychoactive properties, so it doesn’t cause a “high” or other mental effects. But, it can still relieve pain, reduce inflammation and improve depression symptoms.
CBCV may be beneficial for patients with conditions such as:
- Chronic pain
- Major depression
- Inflammatory conditions such as arthritis
- Crohn’s disease
- Epileptic seizures*
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Muscular dystrophy
*One particular area of interest regarding CBCV is its applications for relieving seizures in children and infants.
About Leaf Vertical, Inc.
Leaf Vertical Inc. is an innovative, clinical-stage biopharmaceutical research company, committed to discovering and developing novel therapeutics from its proprietary cannabinoid product platform.
For more information on Leaf Vertical or its Cannabinoid (CBD) clinical trials, use in the treatment of specific types of malignancies related to glioblastoma, myeloma, gastrointestinal, and breast cancer, when administered in conjunction with Standard of Care, please contact Leaf Vertical by phone at 407-776-9217 or visit the company’s headquarters at 805 S. Kirkman Rd, Suite 202, Orlando, Florida 32811.